The amount of primary sugar in the body, blood stream or glucose currently running in our body is blood glucose level. Glucose comes from the carbohydrates we consume as our food source.
What is blood sugar? Why it is important? What role does blood sugar level play in our body? Why its amount in our body is a matter of concern? How to monitor it and how to manage it? You will learn about all these in this article.
What is blood sugar?
The complex carb food we eat is converted into the simpler forms via enzymes as glucose to carry out basic function of the body. There are different form of sugars obtained from different source
Sucrose – it’s the artificial sugar that we consume, also known as table sugar or cane sugar for people who have sweet tooth and like to add additional sugar in their food.
Lactose – it’s also known as milk sugar and is present in milk naturally.
Fructose – it is fruit sugar, present in the fruits naturally. Nearly all fruits contain this sugar. It is easily absorbed and digested into the body.
The high or low level of sugar, both can possess risk to health.
Why it is important?
Regardless of the source the sugar you will consume will reach your blood stream, where blood cells will deliver this active sugar to your tissues and muscles. The additional sugar is stored in muscles and liver. Some of our organs like brain are very fragile about it and thus affects the energy level and you activity directly, indirectly.
What role does blood sugar level play in our body?
Many of you must have experienced or hear about the dizziness or sweating abruptly, which is relieved by drinking a sugar syrup or taking insulin injections. Well, this is due to a low or high blood sugar level.
The persistent low blood sugar level in the body is referred with a medical term, known as hypoglycemia.
Hypoglycemia – During low blood sugar lever in the body the hypothalamus directs pancreas to release glucagon, a hormone which convert the reserved glucose in to the glycogen. This process is known as glycogenesis. And the body organs then again consume this converted sugar as a source of energy. In some conditions body is unable to carry out this process due to lack of stored glucose or due to lack of required enzyme. In such a scenario, glucose supplement is provided as a readily consumable source.
Hyperglycemia – The same happens in case of high blood sugar level case. Insulin is the hormone required by the blood to absorb the converted glucose. If there is not enough insulin production in the body or you are consuming too much processed food that results in the bulk glucose release in the blood it will get accumulated in to the blood causing high blood glucose level.
- Type – I Diabetes
If the body is unable to produce enough insulin required by the body to absorb glucose. It is refer to as type I diabetes.
- Type – II Diabetes
If the body is unable to properly respond to the insulin produced in the body, it is refer to as type-II diabetes. Both the conditions occurs due to endocrine disorder. The type – II can also occur due to family history of diabetes as it is hereditary as well or due to mutation in gene.
- Temporary Diabetes
Another type of diabetes known as gestational diabetes, occurs due to insulin resistance during pregnancy. Although it usually goes away soon after giving birth but regular monitoring is required, especially during 2nd and 3rd trimester. As it can be fatal for mother and fetus as well.
In some patients, who are consuming certain steroids or immunosuppressants in case of cystic fibrosis also develop diabetes during the course of their treatment. Although it is temporary for such patients.
The hyperglycemia is the major concern now a days due to improper diet, fast life, inadequate food consumption and lack of exercise and physical activity. Therefore it is important to monitor the blood sugar regularly and ensure that it falls into the normal range.
Blood Sugar Types
- Fasting Blood Glucose
It is the sugar level in the body after 12-14 hours of fasting. In normal persons it decreases with time but in diabetic patients, the amount of sugar remains same.
- Postprandial Blood Glucose
It is the level of sugar two hours after consuming a meal.
Blood Glucose Chart
It displays the range of blood glucose level indicating the normal, alarming and elevated range for appropriate monitoring of sugar in the body.
There is different range of accepted sugar in body for adults and for kids.
Normal range of sugar that should be present in an adult ranges from 110-125 mg/dl. The sugar level in between this range signifies the proper breakdown and consumption of sugar in body, therefore efficient working of insulin and glucagon.
For adults, the defined range is
|Glucose level in blood (mg/dl)||Conclusion|
|< 55||Severe Hypoglycemic|
|<210||Alarming Range for hyperglycemia|
The range of blood sugar level varies for different children of different age group. The defined range is:-
|Upto 6 years||99-179 mg/dl||109-199 mg/dl|
|6-12 years||89-179 mg/dl||99-179 mg/dl|
|13-18 years||89-129 mg/dl||89-149 mg/dl|
- Dry mouth
- Increased thirst
- Blurred vision
- Frequent urination
- Nausea and vomiting
- Slow healing of bruises and wounds/cuts
- Pale face
- Lack of coordination
- Mood swings